Christianity In Japan Essay Contests

The Ideal Future Free Trade System
– Tasks and Solutions –

Free trade aims to achieve economic development by promoting free transactions of goods and services in a global economy which is becoming increasingly interdependent. On the other hand, protectionist movements also have been emerging, criticizing free trade for giving rise to increases in economic disparity and unemployment. As a result, growing arguments are being made on both sides for the advantages and disadvantages of a free trade system.

  1. What advantages are people around the world gaining through free trade, and, to the contrary, what are the disadvantages?
  2. What kinds of measures are conceivable in order to further increase the advantages while reducing the disadvantages?
  3. In addition, what should “those concerned” do in order to achieve these measures?

In addition to your responses to these questions, please present your argument for what an ideal free trade system should look like in the future. In particular, essays which include analyses and suggestions about the part played by shosha companies are welcome.

[Tips on writing your essay]

  • When writing your essay, various approaches are conceivable, including a comparison of the past history and the present, or an introduction to and comment on theories, which are not limited to your logical composition or reasoning. We ask for constructive and concrete suggestions that go beyond any analyses.

  • As for “those concerned,” governments, political leaders, private companies, individuals, and international organizations are all possible options. However, it is not required to mention the parts played by all of these parties. In addition, “those concerned” are not necessarily limited to only these parties.
  • Anderson, Gerald H., ed. Biographical Dictionary of Christian Missions. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1998.

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    One-volume missiological dictionary that includes succinct entries on several missionaries of the period, e.g., “Fróis, Luis” (p. 230) and “Valignano, Alessandro” (p. 694), etc. Useful for introductory level researchers.

  • Anesaki, Masaharu. A Concordance to the History of Kirishitan Missions (Catholic Missions in Japan in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries). Tokyo: Office of the Academy, 1930.

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    A chronological table of events, persons, publications, and issues.

  • Cooper, Michael. “A Mission Interrupted: Japan.” In A Companion to the Reformation World. Edited by Ronnie Po-chia Hsia, 393–407. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004.

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    Cooper focuses on the failure of the Christianization of Japan in Part V, “Christian Europe and the World,” with other essays on India, China, and Latin America, in Hsia’s collection of essays on local perspectives on the Reformation. Essays on “Martyrs and Saints” and “The Society of Jesus” do not mention Japan.

  • Ebisawa, Arimichi. Christianity in Japan: A Bibliography of Japanese and Chinese Sources. Part 1 (1543–1858) of two parts. Tokyo: Committee on Asian Cultural Studies, International Christian University, 1960.

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    Chronological list of publications and manuscripts written in Japanese and Chinese languages in Japan and China between 1543 and 1858. Each entry gives the author’s name in rōmaji and kanji/kana for easy access by phonetics, with Ebisawa’s English translation of the document title.

  • Mullins, Mark R., ed. Handbook of Christianity in Japan. Leiden, The Netherlands; Boston, MA: Brill, 2003.

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    Miyasaki Kentarō’s chapter 1, “Roman Catholic Mission in Pre-Modern Japan,” of which the historiography on the Reformations is dated, and chapter 2, “The Kakure Kirishitan Tradition,” are useful for introductory level researchers.

  • Nihon Kirisutokyō rekishi daijiten. Tokyo: Kyōbunkan, 1988.

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    In English, the Encyclopedia of history of Christianity in Japan. Entries on persons and topics written by reliable specialists in Japanese.

  • Polgár, László. Bibliographie sur l’Histoire de la Compagnie de Jésus 1901–80. 3 vols. Rome: Institutum Historicum, 1986.

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    See “Japan” in Volume 2, Les pays (nations). Supplemental bibliography is found in the journal Archivum Historicum Societatis Iesu, Volumes 51–70 (1982–2001). Polgár supersedes Sommervogel, Carlos, ed. Bibliotèque de la Compagnie de Jésus. 12 vols. Louvain: Editions de la Bibliothèque S. J., Collège philosophique et théologique, 1960; originally published in 1890.

  • Streit, Robert. Bibliotheca Missionum. Vols. 4–5. Aachen: Aachener Missionsdruckerei, A.-G., 1928–1929.

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    Classic series on Catholic global missions for chronological and geographical references. Streit authored volumes 1 through 5. His successors continued the series in 30 volumes until 1975 published in different locations. Volume 4; Asiatiche Missionliterature 1245–1599 (olim Xavierius Verlagsbuchhandlung, A.-G., 1928) and Volume 5; Asiatiche Missionliterature 1600–1699 (Aachen: Franziskus Xavierius Missionsverein, 1929) are most relevant.

  • Üçerler, M. Antoni J. “Jesuit Enterprise in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Japan.” In The Cambridge Companion to the Jesuits. Edited by Thomas Worcester, 153–168. Cambridge, UK and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

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    Most up-to-date introduction to the period, with useful notes containing bibliographic information.

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