Nancy Farmer Bibliography Apa

Page 1: 
Ethics, Genetics, 
Psychiatric Classification 
and Philosophy of Mind

Compiled by Christian Perring


General Issues

  • Abra, Jock, Should Psychology Be a Science: Pros and Cons, Praeger, 1998
  • Ackerman, Terrence F., Carson Strong, A Casebook of Medical Ethics, Oxford University Press, 1989
  • Agich, George J. Autonomy and Long-Term Care Oxford Univ Press 1993
    • Review by Hesse, Katherine, The New England Journal of Medicine Dec 30 1993, v329, n27, p2044(2)
    • Review by Allen, J.E., CHOICE Jan 1994, v31, n5, p820(1)
    • Review by Post, Stephen G., The Gerontologist April 1994, v34, n2, p274(3)
    • Review by Caplan, Arthur L., The Lancet April 23 1994, v343, n8904, p1024(1)
  • American Hospital Association, Values in Conflict: Resolving Ethical Issues in Health Care, Amer Hospital Assn, 1985
  • American Psychiatric Association Forced into Treatment: The Role of Coercion in Clinical Practice (Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry, Report No 137) American Psychiatric Press, 1994
    • Review by Chodoff, Paul, American Journal of Psychiatry Feb 1995, v152, n2, p293(1)
  • Anderson, Walter Truett, Future of the Self: Inventing the Post-Modern Person, Putnam, 1998
  • Aronowitz, Stanley and Barbara R. Martinsons (Editors), Technoscience and Cyberculture: A Cultural Study, Routledge, 1995
  • Austad, Carol Shaw, Is Long-Term Psychotherapy Unethical?: Toward a Social Ethic in an Era of Managed Care. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1996
  • Barham, Peter and Robert Hayward Relocating Madness: From the Mental Patient to the Person, New York; New York University Press, 1995; London: Free Association Books, 1995
    • Review by Pauline Prior, Journal of Social Policy April 1996 v25 n2 p296(2)
  • Barker, Philip J. & Steve Baldwin Ethical Issues in Mental Health Delmar Pub 1991
  • Bartels, Dianne M., Bonnie S. Leroy and Arthur L. Caplan (Editors), Prescribing Our Future: Ethical Challenges in Genetic Counseling, Aldine De Gruyter, 1993
  • Basiro Davey, Alastair Gray and Clive Seale, Health and Disease: A Reader (Second Edition) (Buckingham, England; Open University Press, 1995)
  • Berg, Marc, Annemarie Mol, Differences in Medicine: Unraveling Practices, Techniques, and Bodies (Body, Commodity, Text), Duke University Press, 1998
  • Bersoff, Donald N. Ethical Conflicts in Psychology Amer Psychological Assn 1995
  • Bloch, S. and P. Chodoff (editors), Psychiatric Ethics, (Second edition), (Oxford U.P., 1991)
    • Review by Sadoff, Robert L., JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association Dec 18 1991, v266, n23, p3350(1)
  • Bollas, Christopher and David Sundelson The New Informants: The Betrayal of Confidentiality in Psychoanalysis and Psythotherapy, Jason Aronson 1996
    • Review by Daniel J. Kevles, The Suspect on the Couch, New York Times, December 31, 1995
    • Review by Mark H. Fleisher, JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association April 10, 1996 v275 n14 p1131(2)
    • Review by Edward Greer, The New England Journal of Medicine April 25, 1996 v334 n17 p1141(1)
    • Review by Ronald J. Karpf, American Journal of Psychotherapy Summer 1996 v50 n3 p377(2)
    • Review by Robin Steier Goldberg, The American Journal of Psychoanalysis Sep 1996 v56 n3 p363(2)
    • Review by Stuart A. Kirk, Social Service Review March 1997 v71 n1 p153(4)
  • Bond, Tim, Standards and Ethics for Counselling in Action (Counselling in Action), Sage Pubns, 1993
  • Bowers, Len, The Social Nature of Mental Illness, Routledge, 1998
  • Boyle, Philip and Daniel Callahan (Editors), What Price Mental Health?: The Ethics and Politics of Setting Priorities (Hastings Center Studies in Ethics) Georgetown Univ Pr 1995
    • Review by Kimberly Strom-Gottfried, Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Fall 1996 24 n3 p267-269
    • Review by Teles, Steven M., Journal of Policy Analysis & Management Fall 1996, v15, n4, p658(13)
    • Review by Howard, Christopher, Journal of Medical Ethics Feb 1997, v23, n1, p57(2)
  • Brody, Howard, Placebos and the Philosophy of Medicine: Clinical, Conceptual, and Ethical Issues, University of Chicago Press, 1980
  • Burns, C., Alcoholics Anonymous Unmasked: Deception and Deliverance, Destiny, 1992
  • Burton, Robert, Anatomy of Melancholy, Kessinger Publishing Company, 1997
  • Callahan, Daniel, False Hopes: Why America's Quest for Perfect Health Is a Recipe for Failure, New York, Simon & Schuster, 1998
  • Caplan, Arthur L., Am I My Brother's Keeper?: The Ethical Frontiers of Biomedicine (Medical Ethics Series), Indiana University Press, 1998
    • Review by R.L. Jones, CHOICE, May 1998 v35 n9 p1562(1)
    • Review by Norman Fost, Issues in Science and Technology, Summer 1998 v14 n4 p86(3)
  • Callahan, Daniel, False Hopes: Why America's Quest for Perfect Health Is a Recipe for Failure, Simon & Schuster, 1998
    • Review by Roy Porter, Medical Waste, New York Times, April 5, 1998
    • Review by Arnold S. Relman, M.D., The New England Journal of Medicine, June 18, 1998, Volume 338, Number 25
  • Capps, Lisa with Elinor Ochs, Foreword by Jerome Bruner, Constructing Panic: The Discourse of Agoraphobia, Harvard University Press, 1997
  • Care, Norman S. Living With One's Past: Personal Fates and Moral Pain Lanham, MD: Rowan & Littlefield, 1996
  • Carling, Paul J., Return to Community: Building Support Systems for People With Psychiatric Disabilities, Guilford Press, 1994
  • Coles, Robert, The Call of Stories: Teaching and the Moral Imagination, Houghton Mifflin Co, 1990
  • Coles, Robert, Andy Ward (Editor), The Mind's Fate: A Psychiatrist Looks at His Profession, Little Brown, 1996
  • The Committee on Medical Education, A Casebook in Psychiatric Ethics (Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry, Report No. 129), Brunner/Mazel, 1990
  • Corey, Gerald F., Professional and Ethical Issues in Counseling and Psychotherapy, Wadsworth Pub Co, 1979
  • Cornwell, John The Power to Harm: Mind, Medicine, and Murder on Trial Viking Press, 1996
    • Review by Carl T. Bogus, Prozac on Trial, The Nation
  • Cottone, R. Rocco and Vilia M. Tarvydas, Ethical and Professional Issues in Counseling, Merrill Pub Co, 1997
  • Cournose, Francine, Bruce Winick (Compilers), Consent to Voluntary Hospitalization: Report of the American Psychiatric Task Force on Consent to Voluntary Hospitalization (Task Force Report, No 3), Amer Psychiatric Press, 1997
  • Christiansen, Harley Duane, Ethics in Counseling; Problem Situations, Univ of Arizona Press, 1972
  • Cohen, Patricia, Cheryl Slomkowski, and Lee Robins, Historical and Geographical Influences on Psychopathology, Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc, 1998
  • Colas, Emily, Just Checking: Scenes from the Life of an Obsessive-Compulsive, Pocket Books, 1998
  • Crawshay-Williams, Rupert, Comforts of Unreason: A Study of the Motives behind Irrational Thought, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1970
  • Davies, Michele L., Childhood Sexual Abuse and the Construction of Identity: Healing Sylvia, Taylor & Francis, 1995
  • Diamond, Stephen A., Anger, Madness, and the Daimonic: The Psychological Genesis of Violence, Evil, and Creativity (SUNY Series in the Philosophy of Psychology), State Univ of New York Press, 1996
  • Doherty, William J., Soul Searching: Why Psychotherapy Must Promote Moral Responsibility, Basic Books, 1996
  • Dokecki, Paul R., The Tragi-Comic Professional: Basic Considerations for Ethical Reflective-Generative Practice, Duquesne Univ Press, 1996
  • Dusen, Wilson Van Natural Depth in Man Swedenborg Foundation, 1972
  • Edwards, Rem B. (Editor) Ethics of Psychiatry: Insanity, Rational Autonomy and Mental Health Care (2nd Edition), Prometheus, 1997
  • Edwards, Rem B. and Wayne Shelton (Editors), Advances in Bioethics: Values, Ethics & Alcoholism, Jai Press, 1997
  • Eichelman, Burr S., M.D., Anne C. Hartwig, Ph.D.  (Editors), Patient Violence and the Clinician (Clinical Practice, No 30), Amer Psychiatric Press, 1995
  • Elizur, Joel and Salvador Minuchin, Institutionalizing Madness: Families, Therapy, and Society,

  • Basic Books, 1989
  • Elliott, Carl, The Rules of Insanity: Moral Responsibility and the Mentally Ill Offender (SUNY, 1996)
  • Elliott, Carl, A Philosophical Disease: Bioethics, Culture, and Identity (Reflective Bioethics), Routledge, 1998
  • Epstein, Mark, and Janet Goldstein, Going to Pieces Without Falling Apart: A Buddhist Perspective on Wholeness, Broadway Books, 1998
  • Epstein, Richard S., Keeping Boundaries: Maintaining Safety and Integrity in the Psychotherapeutic Process, Amer Psychiatric Press, 1994
  • Erwin, Edward, Behavior Therapy: Scientific, Philosophical and Moral Foundations, Cambridge Univ Press, 1978
  • Erwin, Edward, Philosophy and Psychotherapy: Razing the Troubles of the Brain (Perspectives on Psychotherapy, Vol. 1), Sage Pubns, 1997
  • Fairbairn, Gavin J., Contemplating Suicide: The Language and Ethics of Self Harm (Social Ethics and Policy), Routledge, 1995
  • Fingarette, Herbert Heavy Drinking: The Myth of Alcoholism as a Disease University of California Press 1989
  • Friedman, Joel and Marcia Mobilia Boumil, Betrayal of Trust: Sex and Power in Professional Relationships, Bergin & Garvey, 1996
  • Gallagher, Shaun, The Inordinance of Time (Studies in Phenomenology and Existential Philosophy), Northwestern University Press, 1998
  • Garrett, Catherine, Beyond Anorexia: Narrative, Spirituality, and Recovery, Cambridge Univ Press, 1998
  • Geyer, R. F., and D. R. Schweitzer, eds., Theories of alienation: critical perspectives in philosophy and the social sciences, Leiden, Nijhoff, 1976
  • Gilbert, Paul, Bernice Andrews, Shame: Interpersonal Behavior, Psychopathology and Culture (Series in Affective Science), Oxford Univ Press, 1998
  • Glass, James M. Private Terror/Public Life: Psychosis and the Politics of Community Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1989
  • Glass, James Shattered Selves: Multiple Personality in a Postmodern World Cornell U.P., Ithaca, 1994
    • Review by Lee M. Horvitz, Ethics Oct 1994 105 n1 p232(1)
  • Glass, James M., Psychosis and Power: Threats to Democracy in the Self and the Group, Cornell University Press, 1995
    • Review by Michael S. Sherry, The New York Times Book Review July 15, 1995 p26 col 3
    • Review by Fred M. Frohock, The Journal of Politics May 1996 v58 n2 p591(2)
    • Review by Eugene Victor Wolfenstein, Political Theory Nov 1996 v24 n4 p706(23)
  • Globus, Gordon G., The Postmodern Brain (Advances in Consciousness Research), John Benjamins Pub Co., 1995
  • Goffman, Erving Asylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients and Other Inmates Anchor Books, New York, 1961; Doubleday, 1990
  • Goldberg, Carl, Therapeutic Partnership: Ethical Concerns in Psychotherapy, Jason Aronson, 1995
  • Gregory, John, edited by Laurence B. McCullough, John Gregory's Writings on Medical Ethics and Philosophy of Medicine, Kluwer Academic Pub, 1998
  • Grobe, Jeanine (Editor) Beyond Bedlam: Contemporary Women Psychiatric Survivors Speak Out 3rd Side Press, 1995
    • Review by Ellin Sarot, The Women's Review of Books June 1996,
  • Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry, Alcoholism in the United States: Racial and Ethnic Considerations (Report of the Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry: 1984, No 141), 1996
  • Grubb, Andrew, (Editor), Decision-Making and Problems of Incompetence, John Wiley & Sons, 1994
  • Gusfield, Joseph R.,  Contested Meanings: The Construction of Alcohol Problems, Univ of Wisconsin Press, 1996
  • Haas, Leonard J. and John L. Malouf, Keeping Up the Good Work : A Practitioner's Guide to Mental Health Ethics 2nd Edition, Professional Resource Exchange, 1995
  • Haiken, Elizabeth, Venus Envy A History of Cosmetic Surgery, Johns Hopkins Univ Press, 1997
  • Harris, Judith Rich, The Nurture Assumption: Why Children Turn Out the Way They Do, Free Press, 1998
    • First chapter
    • Review by Carol Tavris, Peer Pressure, New York Times, September 13, 1998
    • Review by Bronwyn Drainie, Toronto Globe and Mail, Saturday, September 19, 1998
    • Review by Robert Winder, The Independent, November 8, 1998
    • Review by John W. Murray, HMS Beagle, November 13, 1998, Issue 42
    • Review by Thomas Lewis, Have You Hugged Your Kid Today? Don't Bother, San Francisco Chronicle, Sunday, November 29, 1998
    • Review by John Mullen, Metapsychology, in Perspectives, January - March, 1999
  • Hattab, Jocelyn MD (Editor) Ethics & Child Mental Health Gefen Books, 1994
    • Review by Lock, James, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry June 1995, v34, n6, p827(2)
  • The Hatherleigh Guide to Ethics in Therapy (The Hatherleigh Guides Series, 10) Hatherleigh Press, 1997
  • Haack, Mary R. (Editor), Drug-Dependent Mothers and Their Children: Issues in Public Policy and Public Health, Springer Publishing, 1997
  • Hacking, Ian, Mad Travelers: Reflections on the Reality of Transient Mental Illnesses, University Press of Virginia, 1998
  • Hawton , Keith and Philip Cowen, (Editors), Dilemmas and Difficulties in the Management of Psychiatric Patients, Oxford University Press, 1990
  • Held, Barbara S., Back to Reality: A Critique of Postmodern Theory in Psychotherapy,W W Norton & Company, 1995
  • Herlihy, Barbara and Gerald Corey, ACA Ethical Standards Casebook, American Association for Counseling, Amer Counseling Assn, 1995
  • Hershman, D. Jablow, Julian Lieb, Manic Depression and Creativity, Prometheus Books, 1998
  • Hertzman, Marc and  Douglas E. Feltner (Editors), The Handbook of Psychopharmacology Trials: An Overview of Scientific, Political, and Ethical Concerns, New York Univ Press, 1997
  • Herzog, Edgar, Psyche and Death 2nd Edition, Spring Publications, 1998
  • Hewitt, John P., The Myth of Self-Esteem: Finding Happiness and Solving Problems in America (Contemporary Social Issues (New York, N.Y.).), 1998
  • Heyward, Carter, When Boundaries Betray Us: Beyond Illusions of What Is Ethical in Therapy and Life, Harper San Francisco, 1995
  • Hoagwood, Kimberly, Peter S. Jensen, and Celia B. Fisher (Editors) Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research With Children and Adolescents Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc, 1996
  • Hoffman, John Charles, Ethical Confrontation in Counseling, University of Chicago Press, 1981
  • Holmes, Jeremy, The Values of Psychotherapy, Oxford Univ Press, 1990
  • Hornstein, Revolution in Psychiatry, Free Press, 1998
  • Huber , Charles H., Ethical, Legal, and Professional Issues in the Practice of Marriage and Family Therapy (2nd Edition), Glencoe/MacMillan McGraw Hill, 1993
  • Hunter, Mic & Jim Struve The Ethical Use of Touch in Psychotherapy Sage Pubns 1997
  • Isaac, Rael Jean & Virginia C. Armat, Madness in the Streets, (The Free Press, 1990)
    • Review by E. Fuller Torrey, The Madness of Deinstitutionalization, L.A. Times, Sunday, September 9, 1990 (charge for retrieval)
    • Reviewed by David Mechanic, Promise Them Everything, Give Them the Streets, New York Times, Sunday September 16, 1990
  • Jamison, Stephen Assisted Suicide: How Medical and Mental Health Professionals Can Decide What's the Right Thing to Do Jossey-Bass 1997
  • Jenkins, Philip , Moral Panic: Changing Concepts of the Child Molester in Modern America, Yale Univ Press, 1998
  • Jenson, Richard E., Standards and Ethics in Clinical Psychology, University Press of America, 1992
  • Johnson, Ann Braden Out of Bedlam: The Truth About Deinstitutionalization (Basic Books, 1990)
    • Review by E. Fuller Torrey, The Madness of Deinstitutionalization, L.A. Times, Sunday, September 9, 1990 (charge for retrieval)
    • Reviewed by David Mechanic, Promise Them Everything, Give Them the Streets, New York Times, Sunday September 16, 1990
  • Johnson, Hillary Osler's Web: Inside the Labyrinth of the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Epidemic Penguin USA 1997
    • Review by Maryann Spurgin: Chronic Obfuscation in The Nation
  • Johnson, Lynn D., Psychotherapy in the Age of Accountability, W W Norton & Company, 1995
  • Karp, David A. Speaking of Sadness: Depression, Disconnection, and the Meanings of Illness Oxford University Press, New York, 1996; Reprint edition,trade paperback, 1997.
    • Review by Martha Manning, Invisible Wounds, New York Times January 21, 1996
    • Review by Courtney Leatherman, Shedding light on inner darkness, The Chronicle of Higher Education, Feb 2, 1996 v42 n21 pA5(1)
    • Review by L. Gillikin, CHOICE, June 1996 v33 n10 p1725(1)
    • Review by Rebecca J. Erickson, The American Journal of Sociology, Sep 1996 v102 n2 p652(3)
    • Review by William C. Cockerham,  Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, Jan 1997 v25 n4 p527(3)
    • Review by Sandra J. Tanenbaum, Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, April 1998 v23 n2, p402-404.
    • Review by Christian Perring, Metapsychology Book Review, Perspectives Oct-Dec 1998
  • Kaminer, Wendy, I'm Dysfunctional, You're Dysfunctional: The Recovery Movement and Other Self- Help Fashions, Vintage Books, New York, 1992
  • Kazdin, Alan E., Methodological Issues and Strategies in Clinical Research 2nd Edition, American Psychological Associaction, 1998
  • Kelly, Robert E., Manic-Depression: Illness or Awakening, Bookmasters, 1995
  • Kemp, Donna R., Biomedical Policy and Mental Health, Praeger Publishers, 1994
  • Kentsmith, D. K., S. A. Salladay, et al., Eds., Ethics in Mental Health Practice. Orlando, Florida, Grune & Stratton, Inc Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1986
  • Kessler, David, The Rights of the Dying: A Companion for Life's Final Moments, Harperperennial Library, 1998
  • Kleinman, Arthur and Good, Byron, Culture and Depression: Studies in Anthropology and Cross-Cultural Psychiatry of Affect and Disorder Unicersity of California Press, 1986
  • Kleinman, Arthur Rethinking Psychiatry: From Cultural Category to Personal Experience Free Pr 1991
  • Klingemann, Harald, Jukka-Pekka Takala, and Geoffrey Hunt (Editors), Cure, Care, or Control: Alcoholism Treatment in Sixteen Countries (SUNY Series in New Social Studies on Alcohol and Drugs), State Univ of New York Press, 1992
  • Koenig, Harold, Handbook of Religion and Mental Health, Academic Press, 1998
  • Koocher, Gerald P. and Patricia Keith-Spiegel, Ethics in Psychology: Professional Standards and Cases (Oxford Textbooks in Clinical Psychology, V. 3) 2nd Edition, Oxford Univ Press, 1998
  • Kramer, Peter D., Moments of Engagement: Intimate Psychotherapy in a Technological Age, Viking, 1989
  • Kramer, Peter D., Listening to Prozac: A Psychiatrist Explores Antidepressant Drugs and the Remaking of the Self, With a New Afterword, Viking, 1993, , Penguin USA, 1997
    • Review by Carol Tavris, Brave New Mind, L.A. Times, Sunday, June 13, 1993
    • Review by Freedman, Daniel X., On Beyond Wellness, The New York Times Book Review August 8 1993, p6, col 1
    • Review by Stone, Elizabeth, American Health Sept 1993, v12, n7, p34(2)
    • Review by Reich, Walter, The Wilson Quarterly Autumn 1993, v17, n4, p74(4)
    • Review by Cushman, Reid, The Nation Nov 8 1993, v257, n15, p536(4)
    • Review by Gillikin, L., CHOICE Nov 1993, v31, n3, p540(1)
    • Review by Rothman, David J., The New Republic Feb 14 1994, v210, n7, p34(5)
      • Kramer, Peter D., Is everybody happy? ('Listening to Prozac' author rebuts Feb 14, 1994 article 'Shiny Happy People') (Letter to the Editor), The New Republic March 14 1994, v210, n11, p4(1)
    • Review by Medawar, Charles, Nature March 24 1994, v368, n6469, p369(2)
    • Review by Porter, Roy, TLS. Times Literary Supplement March 25 1994, n4747, p28(1)
    • Review by Brophy, James J., JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association March 9 1994, v271, n10, p794(1)
    • Review by Wheelwright, Julie, New Statesman & Society March 18 1994, v7, n294, p 54(1)
    • Review by Luchins, Daniel J., Perspectives in Biology and Medicine Spring 1994, v37, n3, p462(3)
    • Review by Salzman, Carl, American Journal of Psychiatry April 1994, v151, n4, p610(2)
    • Review by Nuland, Sherwin B., The New York Review of Books June 9 1994, v41, n11, p4(4)
    • Review by Kauffman, George B., American Scientist Jan-Feb 1995, v83, n1, p90(2)
    • Review by Gardiner, Judith Kegan, Feminist Studies Fall 1995, v21, n3, p501(17)
  • Kramer, Peter D., Should You Leave?: A Psychiatrist Explores Intimacy and Autonomy in Relationships and the Nature of Advice Scribner 1997
    • Review by Martha Manning, Intimacy and Stuff, ,New York Times, November 2, 1997
    • Review by Lehmann-Haupt, Christopher, The New York Times Dec 18 1997, v147, pB9(N) pE9(L), col 3
  • Kubler-Ross, Elisabeth and, Todd Gold, The Wheel of Life: A Memoir of Living and Dying, Touchstone Books, 1998
  • Kunz, George, The Paradox of Power and Weakness: Levinas and an Alternative Paradigm for Psychology (SUNY Series, Alternatives in Psychology),  State Univ of New York Press, 1998
  • Lahav, Ran and Tillmanns, Maria da Venza, Essays on Philosophical Counseling, Lanham, University Press of America, 1995; Third edition 1997.
  • Lakin, M. (1988). Ethical Issues in the Psychotherapies. New York, Oxford University Press.
  • Lasch, Christopher, The Minimal Self: Psychic Survival in Troubled Times, W W Norton & Co, 1985
  • Lasch, Christopher, Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations, W W Norton & Co, 1991
  • Leff, Julian (Editor), Care in the Community: Illusion or Reality?, John Wiley & Sons, 1997
  • Levine, Robert, A Geography of Time: On Tempo, Culture, and the Pace of Life, Basic books, 1998
  • Levinthal, Charles F., Drugs, Behavior, and Modern Society 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, 1998
  • Lilienfeld, Scott O, Seeing Both Sides: Classic Controversies in Abnormal Psychology, Brooks/Cole Pub Co, 1995
  • Lowman, Rodney L. , The Ethical Practice of Psychology in Organizations, APA Publications, 1998
  • Ludwig, Arnold M., MD, The Price of Greatness: Resolving the Creativity and Madness Controversy, Guilford Press, 1996
  • Ludwig, Arnold M., MD, How Do We Know Who We Are?: A Biography of the Self, Oxford University Press, 1997
  • McDonald, Maryon (Editor), Gender, Drink and Drugs (Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Women, Vol 10), Berg Pub Ltd, 1994
  • Makela, Klaus, Ilkka Arminen, and Kim Bloomfield (Editor), Alcoholics Anonymous As a Mutual-Help Movement: A Study in Eight Societies, Univ of Wisconsin Press, 1996
  • Mappes, Thomas A., David Degrazia (Editors), Biomedical Ethics 4th edition, McGraw Hill, 1996
  • McCullough, Laurence B., John Gregory and the Invention of Professional Medical Ethics and the Profession of Medicine (Philosophy and Medicine, Vol 56), Kluwer Academic Pub, 1998
  • Miller, Ivan J., What Managed Care Is Doing to Outpatient Mental Health: A Look behind the Veil of Secrecy, Boulder Psychotherapists' Press, 1994
  • Miller, John William, In Defense of the Psychological, W.W. Norton & Company, 1985
  • Miller, Ronald B. (Editor) The Restoration of Dialogue: Readings in the Philosophy of Clinical Psychology Amer Psychological Assn 1992
  • Moffic, H. Steven, and Alan Rinzler, The Ethical Way: Challenges and Solutions for Managed Behavioral Healthcare (Jossey-Bass Managed  Behavioral Healthcare Library), JB Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1997
  • Monroe, Kristen Renwick, The Heart of Altruism: Perceptions of a Common Humanity, Princeton University Press, 1998
  • Munson, Ronald, and Christopher A. Hoffman, Intervention and Reflection: Basic Issues in Medical Ethics 5th edition, Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1995
  • Nelkin, Dorothy and Laurence Tancredi, Dangerous Diagnostics: The Social Power of Biological Information: With a New Preface, University of Chicago Press, 1994
  • Nelson, Hilde Lindemann (Editor), Stories and Their Limits: Narrative Approaches to  Bioethics (Reflective Bioethics), Routledge, 1997
  • Niv, Molly D. and Declan Joyce, Reason in Madness: An Existential Approach to Psychiatric Disorders, Ever Pub, 1996
  • Ossoff, Jon In the Cavern of the Demon of the Black Mountain: A Meditation on Oppresion, Betrayal and the Tyranny of Control L Canyon Bks, 1996
  • Pam, Alvin & Colin A. Ross Pseudoscience in Biological Psychiatry: Blaming the Body John Wiley & Sons, 1995
  • Pankratz, Loren, Patients Who Deceive: Assessment and Management of Risk in Providing Health Care and Financial Benefits, Charles C Thomas Pub Ltd, 1998
  • Parrish, Dee Anna, Abused, (2nd Edition), Station Hill Press, 1998
  • Peele, Standon, with Archie Brodsky Love and Addiction Signet, New York, 1975, 1991, also published on the web
  • Peele, S.P. and A. Brodsky The Truth About Addiction and Recovery Fireside, 1991
  • Peele, Stanton, The Meaning of Addiction: An Unconventional View,  JB Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1998
  • Penslar, Robin Levin (Editor) Research Ethics: Cases and Materials Indiana Univ Press, 1995
    • Review by Vinogradov, Sophia, American Journal of Psychiatry Feb 1996, v153, n2, p286(2)
  • Perring, Christine McCourt, The Experience of Psychiatric Hospital Closure: An Anthropological Study (Avebury Studies of Care in the Community), Avebury, 1993
  • Petrarch, Francis, On Solitude (Dunquin Series, No 26), Continuum Pub. Corp., 1998
  • Post, Stephen G., The Moral Challenge of Alzheimer Disease, Johns Hopkins Univ Press, 1995
  • Prior, Lindsay The Social Organization of Mental Illness Sage Publications, London, 1993
  • Radley, Alan, Making Sense of Illness: The Social Psychology of Health and Disease, Sage Pubns, 1994
  • Ragsdale, Katherine Hancock, Boundary Wars: Intimacy and Distance in Healing Relationships, Pilgrim Press, 1996
  • Reiser, S. J., H. J. Bursztajn, et al., Divided Staffs, Divided Selves: A Case Approach to Mental Health Ethics. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1987
  • Rochefort, David A., From Poorhouses to Homelessness: Policy Analysis and Mental Health Care 2nd Edition, Auburn House Pub, 1997
  • Rosenbaum, Max (Editor), Ethics and Values in Psychotherapy: A Guidebook, Amereon Press, 1994
  • Roth, Martin and Jerome Kroll, The Reality of Mental Illness, Cambridge Univ Press, 1986
  • Rozenberg, Jacques J., From the Unconscious to Ethics: The Genesis of Psycho-Ethics (San Francisco State University Series in Philosophy, Vol. 152), Peter Lang Publishing, 1998
  • Russell, Janice, Out of Bounds: Sexual Explotation in Counselling and Therapy, Sage Pubns, 1993
  • Sabini, John, Maury Silver, Emotional Intuitions: Responsibility and Aesthetics in the Discovery of Character, Oxford Univ Press, 1998
  • Sanderson, Christiane, Narrative Truth: Memory in Therapeutic Practice, Taylor & Francis, 1998
  • Sass, Louis, The Paradoxes of Delusion: Wittgenstein, Schreber, and the Schizophrenic Mind, Ithaca, N.Y., Cornell University Press, 1994
    • Review by J.A. Mather, CHOICE June 1994 v31 n10 p1659(1)
  • Sass, Louis A. Madness and Modernism: Insanity in the Light of Modern Art, Literature and Thought Basic Books, 1992
    • Review in TLS. Times Literary Supplement, Jan 27, 1995 n4791 p33(1)
    • Review by John Xiros Cooper, Canadian Literature, Winter 1996 n151 p121(3)
  • Schreter, Robert K., Steven S. Sharfstein and Carol A. Schreter (Editor), Allies and Adversaries: The Impact of Managed Care on Mental Health, Amer Psychiatric Press, 1994
  • Schwartz, William B., Life Without Disease: The Pursuit of Medical Utopia, Univ California Press, 1998
  • Showalter, Elaine, Hystories: Hysterical Epidemics and Modern Culture, Columbia University Press, New York, 1997.
    • Review by Mary Schweitzer, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and the Cynics
    • Review by David Wood, A Reply - written by a CFS sufferer
    • Review by Todd Gitlin, Millennial Mumbo Jumbo, L.A. Times, Sunday, April 27, 1997
    • Review by Carol Tavris, Pursued by Fashionable Furies, New York Times, May 4, 1997
    • Review by Micale, Mark S., Times Literary Supplement May 16 1997, n4911, p6(2)
    • Review by Crews, Frederick, The New Republic May 12 1997, v216, n19, p35(8)
    • Review by Christian Perring Perspectives: A Mental Health Magazine, Vol. 2. Issue 3, July - August, 1997
    • Review by Robert Hanks, The Independent July 28 1998
    • Review by J. Stone, Journal of Psychosomatic Research, V. 45, N. 5 (Nov), 1998, pp. 478-9
  • Shweder, Richard A., Welcome to Middle Age, and Other Cultural Fictions (The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Series on Mental Health and Development), The University of Chicago Press, 1998
  • Sim, Julius Ethical Decision-Making in Therapy Practice Butterworth-Heinemann 1997
  • Small, Meredith F., Our Babies, Ourselves: How Biology and Culture Shape the Way We Parent, Anchor, 1998
  • Small, Richard F., Laurence R. Barnhill (Editor), Practicing in the New Mental Health Marketplace: Ethical, Legal, and Moral Issues, Amer Psychological Assn, 1998
  • Snyder, Lois (Editor), Ethical Choices: Case Studies for Medical Practice, Amer College of Physicians, 1996
  • Stefanis, Costas N., Constantin R. Soldatos, Andreas Rabavilas (Editors), Psychiatry : A World Perspective: Social Psychiatry; Ethics and Law; History of Psychiatry; Psychiatric Education Excerpta Medica, 1991
  • Stein, Robert, The Betrayal of the Soul in Psychotherapy, Spring Publications, 1998
  • Stein, Ronald H., Ethical Issues in Counseling, Prometheus Books,1990
  • Strug, David L., S. Priyadarsini, Alcohol Interventions: Historical and Sociocultural Approaches, Haworth Press, 1986
  • Tierney, Nathan L., Imagination and Ethical Ideals: Prospects for a Unified Philosophical and Psychological Understanding (Suny Series in Ethical Theory), State Univ of New York Press, 1994
  • Torrey, E. Fuller, Nowhere To Go: The Tragic Odyssey of the Homeless Mentally Ill. HarperCollins, 1988
    • Review by Tamar Lewin, The Seriously Ill and the Worried Well, New York Times, SundayDecember 18, 1988
    • Review by Isaac, Rael Jean, Commentary Jan 1990, v89, n1, p67(4)
    • Review by Beck, Bernard, Contemporary Sociology May 1991, v20, n3, p425(2)
  • Torrey, E. Fuller, Out of the Shadows: Confronting America's Mental Illness Crisis, John Wiley & Sons 1996
    • Review by Kevles, Daniel J., Outcasts, The New York Times Book Review Jan 19 1997, p15, col 1
    • Review by Coles, Robert, The Lancet April 19 1997, v349, n9059, p1181(1)
    • Review by Bell, Carl C., JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association April 9, 1997, v277, n14, p1169(2)
    • Review by Veenhuis, Philip E., The New England Journal of Medicine May 1 1997, v336, n18, p1331(1)
  • Tyrer, Peter J. and Derek Steinberg, Models for Mental Disorder: Conceptual Models in Psychiatry, 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 1998
  • Tyrer, Peter J., Anxiety: A Multidisciplinary Review, Imperial College Press, 1998
  • Unger, Roberto Mangabeira Passion: An Essay on Personality Free Press, 1984
  • United States Congress. Office of Technology Assessment, Mental disorders and genetics: bridging the gap between research and society, United States Government Printing Office, 1994
  • United States Congress. Senate. Committee on Finance. Deinstitutionalization, mental illness, and medications: hearing before the Committee on Finance, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, second session, May 10, 1994, U.S. G.P.O., 1995
  • Valenstein, Elliot, Blaming the Brain: The Truth About Drugs and Mental Health, Free Press, 1998
  • Van Hoose, William H., Ethics in Counseling and Psychotherapy: Perspectives on Issues and Decision Making, Carroll Press, 1979
  • Veatch, Robert M. (Editor), Medical Ethics 2nd edition (Jones and Bartlett Series in Philosophy), Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 1996
  • Waller, Bruce N., The Natural Selection of Autonomy (SUNY Series, Philosophy and Biology), State Univ of New York Press, 1998
  • Warner, R., Epidemiology of Mental Disorders & Psychosocial Problems: Schizophrenia, World Health Organization, 1995
  • Warner, Richard, Recovery from Schizophrenia: Psychiatry and Political Economy, 2nd Edition, Routledge, 1994
  • Weiner, Neal O., The Harmony of the Soul: Mental Health and Moral Virtue Reconsidered (SUNY Series in the Philosophy of Psychology), State University of New York, 1993
  • Welfel, Elizabeth Reynolds, Ethics in Counseling and Psychotherapy: Standards, Research and Emerging Issues Brooks/Cole Pub Co., 1997
  • Werth, James L., Rational Suicide?: Implications for Mental Health Professionals (Series in Death Education, Aging, and Health Care), Taylor & Francis, 1996
  • Wilkerson, Abby L., Diagnosis, Difference: The Moral Authority of Medicine, Cornell Univ Press, 1998
  • Woolfolk, Robert L., The Cure of Souls: Science, Values, and Psychotherapy (New Lexington Press Social and Behavioral Science Series), Jossey Bass, 1998
  • Zaner, Richard M., Troubled Voices: Stories of Ethics and Illness, Pilgrim Press, 1993
  • Recovered/Repressed/False Memory

  • Alpert, Judith L. (Editor), Sexual Abuse Recalled: Treating Trauma in the Era of the Recovered Memory Debate, Jason Aronson, 1996
  • Antze, Paul, Michael Lambek , and Micheal Lambek (Editors), Tense Past: Cultural Essays in Trauma and Memory, Routledge, 1996
  • Appelbaum, Paul S., Lisa A. Uyehara, and Mark R. Elin (Editors), Trauma and Memory: Clinical and Legal Controversies, Oxford Univ Press, 1997
  • Baker, Robert A. (editor), Child Sexual Abuse and False Memory Syndrome, Prometheus Books, 1998
  • Caruth, Cathy, Trauma: Explorations in Memory,  Johns Hopkins Univ Press, 1995
  • Contratto, Susan and M. Janice Gutfreund (Editors), A Feminist Clinician's Guide to the Memory Debate, Haworth Press, 1996
  • Erdelyi, Matthew Hugh, The Recovery of Unconscious Memories: Hypermnesia and Reminiscence (John D. & Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Series on Mental Health and Development), University of Chicago Press, 1996
  • Fredrickson, Renee, Repressed Memories: A Journey to Recovery from Sexual Abuse (Fireside/Parkside Recovery Book), Simon & Schuster, 1992
  • Freyd, Jennifer J., Betrayal Trauma: The Logic of Forgetting Childhood Abuse, Harvard Univ Press, November 1996
  • Friesen, James G., The Truth About False Memory Syndrome, Vital Issues Press, 1995
  • Goldstein, Eleanor, and Kevin Farmer, True Stories of False Memories, Social Issues Resources Series, 1993
  • Gartner, Richard B. (Editor), Memories of Sexual Betrayal: Truth, Fantasy, Repression, and Dissociation, Jason Aronson, 1997
  • Haaken, Janice, Pillar of Salt: Gender, Memory, and the Perils of Looking Back, Rutgers Univ Press, 1998
  • Hedges, Lawrence E., Remembering, Repeating, and Working Through Childhood Trauma: The Psychodynamics of Recovered Memories, Multiple Personality, Ritual Abuse, Incest, Jason Aronson, 1995
  • Johnston, Moira, Spectral Evidence: The Ramona Case : Incest, Memory, and Truth on Trial in Napa Valley, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1997
  • Loftus, Elizabeth and Katherine Ketcham, The Myth of Repressed Memory: False Memories and Allegations of Sexual Abuse, St. Martin's Press, 1996
  • McDonald, Arlys Norcross, Repressed Memories: Can You Trust Them?, Fleming H Revell Co, 1995
  • Miller, Alice, Thou Shalt Not Be Aware: Society's Betrayal of the Child, Noonday Press, 1998
  • Mollon, Phil, Remembering Trauma: A Psychotherapist's Guide to Memory and Illusion, John Wiley & Sons, 1998
  • Ofshe, Richard and Ethan Watters Making Monsters: False Memories, Psychotherapy, and Sexual Hysteria Univ California Press 1996
    • Review by Katy Butler, Did Daddy Really Do It?, L.A. Times, Sunday, February 5, 1995
    • Review by Steven Rose, Two Types of Truth, New York Times, Sunday February 26, 1995
  • Pendergrast, Mark, Victims of Memory: Incest Accusations and Shattered Lives, Upper Access Book Publishers, 1995
  • Pendergrast, Mark, and Melody Gavigan, Victims of Memory: Sex Abuse Accusations and Shattered Lives 2nd Edition, Upper Access Book, 1996
  • Pezdek, Kathy and William P. Banks (Editors), The Recovered Memory/False Memory Debate, Academic Press, 1996
  • Pope, Harrison G., Jr., Psychology Astray: Fallacies in Studies of 'Repressed Memory' and Childhood Trauma, Social Issues Resources Series, 1997
  • Pope, Kenneth S., Laura S. Brown, Recovered Memories of Abuse: Assessment, Therapy, Forensics, Amer Psychological Assn, 1996
  • Prozan, Charlotte (Editor), Construction and Reconstruction of Memory: Dilemmas of Childhood Sexual Abuse, Jason Aronson, 1997
  • Read, J. Don  and D. Stephen Lindsay (Editors), Recollections of Trauma: Scientific Evidence and Clinical Practice (NATO ASI Series. Series A, Life Sciences, Vol 291), Plenum Pub Corp, 1997
  • Reviere, Susan L., Memory of Childhood Trauma: A Clinician's Guide to the Literature, Guilford Press, 1996
  • Roseman, Mark E., William B. Craig, and Gini Graham Scott, You the Jury: A Recovered Memory Case: Allegations of Sexual Abuse, Seven Locks Press, 1997
  • Sandler, Joseph, Peter Fonagy, and Alan D. Baddeley (Editors), Recovered Memories of Abuse: True or False (Monograph Series of the Psychoanalysis Unit of University College, London and the Anna Freud Centre), International Universities Press, 1997
  • Smith, Susan, Survivor Psychology: The Dark Side of a Mental Health Mission, Social Issues Resources Series, 1998
  • Spanos, Nicholas P., Multiple Identities & False Memories: A Sociocognitive Perspective, Amer Psychological Assn, 1996
  • Van Til, Reinder, Lost Daughters: Recovered Memory Therapy and the People It Hurts, Wm B Eerdmans Pub Co, 1997
  • Waites, Elizabeth A., Memory Quest: Trauma and the Search for Personal History, W W Norton & Company, 1997
  • Wakefield, Holli and, Ralph Underwager, Return of the Furies: An Investigation into Recovered Memory Therapy, Open Court Publishing, 1994
  • Wassil-Grimm, Claudette, Diagnosis for Disaster: The Devastating Truth About False Memory Syndrome and Its Impact on Accusers and Families, Penguin USA, 1996
  • Whitfield, Charles L., MD, Memory and Abuse: Remembering and Healing the Wounds of Trauma, Health Communications, 1995
  • Yapko, Michael D., Ph.D., Suggestions of Abuse: True and False Memories of Childhood Sexual Trauma, Simon & Schuster, 1994

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Genetics, Reproductive Technology and Ethics

  • Aldridge, Susan, The Thread of Life: The Story of Genes and Genetic Engineering, Cambridge University Press, 1996
  • Appleyard, Bryan, Brave New Worlds: Staying Human in the Genetic Future, Viking Press, 1998
  • Barondes, Samuel H., Mood Genes: Hunting for Origins of Mania and Depression, W H Freeman & Co, 1998
  • Bayertz, Kurt, Sarah Kirkby (Translator), Genethics: Technological Intervention in Human Reproduction As a Philosophical Problem, Cambridge Univ Press, 1994
  • Beck-Gernsheim, Elisabeth, Laimdota Mazzarins (Translator), The Social Implications of Bioengineering, Humanities Press, 1995
  • Cole-Turner, Ronald (Editor), Human Cloning: Religious Responses, Westminster John Knox Press, 1997
  • Cook-Deegan, Robert, The Gene Wars: Science, Politics and the Human Genome, W.W. Norton & Company, 1996
  • De Marco, Donald, Biotechnology and the Assault on Parenthood, Ignatius Press, 1991
  • Fenwick, Lynda Beck, Private Choices, Public Consequences: Reproductive Technology and the New Ethics of Conception, Pregnancy, and Family, E P Dutton, 1998
  • Frankel , Mark S. and Albert H. Teich (Editors), The Genetic Frontier: Ethics, Law, and Policy, AAS Distribution Center, 1994
    • Review by M. LaBar, CHOICE, July-August 1994 v31 n11-12 p1743(1)
    • Review by  Kenneth J. Ryan,  JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association, Oct 5, 1994
  • Grace, Eric S., Biotechnology Unzipped: Promises & Realities, National Academy Press, 1997
  • Hall, Laura Lee (Editor), Genetics and Mental Illness: Evolving Issues for Research and Society Plenum Pub, 1996
  • Hamer, Dean and Peter Copeland, Living With Our Genes: Why They Matter More Than You Think, Doubleday & Company, 1998
  • Harris, John, Clones, Genes and Immortality: Ethics and the Genetic Revolution, Oxford Univ Press, 1998
  • Hartouni, Valerie, Cultural Conceptions: On Reproductive Technologies and the Remaking of Life, Univ of Minnesota Press, 1997
  • Hubbard, Ruth and Elijah Wald, Exploding the Gene Myth: How Genetic Information Is Produced and Manipulated by Scientists, Physicians, Employers, Insurance Companies, Educators, Beacon Press, 1997
  • Kaplan, Lawrence J., Rosemarie Tong, Controlling Our Reproductive Destiny: A Technological and Philosophical Perspective (New Liberal Arts), MIT Press, 1994
  • Kass, Leon R. and James Q. Wilson, The Ethics of Human Cloning, AEI Press, 1998
  • Kevles, Daniel J. and Leroy Hood (Editors), Code of Codes: Scientific and Social Issues in the Human Genome Project, Harvard Univ Press, 1993
  • Kevles, Daniel J., In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity, Harvard University Press, 1995
  • Kilner, John F., Rebecca D. Pentz and Frank E. Young (Editors), Genetic Ethics: Do the Ends Justify the Genes? (Horizon in Bioethics Series), Wm B Eerdmans Pub Co, 1997
  • Kimbrell, Andrew, The Human Body Shop: The Engineering and Marketing of Life (2nd Edition), Regnery Publishing, 1998
  • Kitcher, Philip, The Lives to Come: The Genetic Revolution and Human Possibilities, Touchstone Books, 1997
    • Review by Seabrook, John, The New Yorker Feb 12 1996, v71, n48, p79(3) Harris, John, Nature April 18 1996, v380, n6575, p591(2)
    • Review by Dixon, Bernard, New Scientist April 13 1996, v150, n2025, p42(1)
    • Review by Bazell, Robert, The Lancet April 27 1996, v347, n9009, p1171(2) Jennings, Lane, The Futurist May-June 1996, v30, n3, p58(1)
    • Review by Green, Ronald M. , Issues in Science and Technology Fall 1996, v13, n1, p85(3)
    • Review by Dorothy C. Wertz, The Gene Letter Volume 1, Issue 2, September 1996
    • Review by Cole, Leonard A. , BioScience Oct 1996, v46, n9, p708(2)
    • Review by Conrad, Peter, Science Nov 15 1996, v274, n5290, p1147(2)
    • Review by Lyons, Graham and Smith, Joseph Wayne, Population and Development Review March 1997, v23, n1, p181(4)
    • Review by Bouchard, Thomas J., Quarterly Review of Biology March 1997, v72, n1, p113(1)
  • Kolata, Gina, Clone: The Road to Dolly, and the Path Ahead, William Morrow & Co, 1998
    • Review by John R. G. Turner, Ewe Two, The New York Times, December 28, 1997
    • Review by Robert S. Schwartz, M.D., The New England Journal of Medicine, July 9, 1998, Volume 339, Number 2
  • Lyon, Jeff and Peter Gorner, Altered Fates: Gene Therapy and the Retooling of Human Life, W. W. Norton, 1996
  • McGee, Glenn, The Perfect Baby: A Pragmatic Approach to Genetics, Rowman and Littlefield, 1997
  • Murray, Thomas H. and Mark A. Rothstein (Editors), The Human Genome Project and the Future of Health Care (Medical Ethics Series), Indiana Univ Press, 1996
  • Pence, Gregory, Who's Afraid of Human Cloning?, Rowman and Littlefield, 1998
  • Peters, Ted, Playing God?: Genetic Determinism and Human Freedom, Routledge, 1996
  • Peters, Ted (Editor), Genetics: Issues of Social Justice (The Pilgrim Library of Ethics), Pilgrim Press, 1998
  • Reiss, Michael J. and Roger Straughan, Improving Nature?: The Science and Ethics of Genetic Engineering Cambridge Univ Press, 1996
    • Review by  Peter Conrad, Science, Nov 15, 1996 v274 n5290 p1147(2)
    • Review by Ronald Preston, Theology, July-August 1997 v100 n796 p307(2)
    • Review by Timothy Chappell, Journal of Medical Ethics, Oct 1997 v23 n5 p329(3)
    • Review by Karl Drlica, Quarterly Review of Biology, March 1998 v73 n1 p60(1)
    • Review by Roger Wrubel, BioScience, March 1998 v48 n3 p210(3)
  • Rifkin, Jeremy, The Biotech Century - A Second Opinion: The Marriage of the Genetic Sciences and the Technologies Reshaping Our World, J P Tarcher, 1998
  • Rose, Steven, Lifelines: Biology Beyond Determinism, Oxford University Press, 1998
  • Rothblatt, Martine A., Unzipped Genes: Taking Charge of Baby-Making in the New Millennium (America in Transition - Radical Perspectives), Temple Univ Press, 1997
  • Rothstein, Mark A. (Editor), Genetic Secrets: Protecting Privacy and Confidentiality in the Genetic Era, Yale Univ Press, 1997
  • Shannon, Thomas A., Made in Whose Image: Genetic Engineering and Christian Ethics, Humanities Press, 1998
  • Siever, Larry J. and William Frucht, New View of Self: How Genes and Neurotransmitters Shape Your Mind, Your Personality, and Your Mental Health, Macmillan General Reference, 1997
  • Silver, Lee, Remaking Eden; How Genetic Engineering and Cloning Will Transform the American Family, Avon Books, 1997
    • Review by Paul Raeburn, The Copy Shop, The New York Times, January 11, 1998
    • Review by Alan I. Packer, HMS Beagle, March 6, 1998 · Issue 26
    • Review by Robert S. Schwartz, M.D., The New England Journal of Medicine, July 9, 1998, Volume 339, Number 2
  • Sram, R.J. and V. Bulyzhenkov, L. Prilipko, Y. Christen (Editors), Ethical Issues of Molecular Genetics in Psychiatry Springer Verlag 1991
    • Review by Howard, Christopher, Journal of Medical Ethics June 1994, v20, n2, p119(2)
  • Sunstein, Cass R. and Martha C. Nussbaum (Editors), Clones and Clones: Facts and Fantasies About Human Cloning, W.W. Norton & Company 1998
    • Review by David Papineau, Hello, Dolly, Dolly, Dolly . . . , New York Times, September 6, 1998
    • Review by Eliot A. Cohen, Foreign Affairs, Sept-Oct 1998 v77 n5 p149(2)
    • Review by Bryan Appleyard, New Statesman Oct 9, 1998 v127 n4406 p45(2)
  • Suzuki, David and Peter Knudtson, Genethics: The Clash Between the New Genetics and Human Values, Harvard Univ Press, 1990
  • Turney, Jon, Frankenstein's Footsteps: Science, Genetics and Popular Culture, Yale University Press, 1998
    • Review by Walter Gratzer, HMS Beagle  BOOK REVIEW, (reprinted with permission from Current Biology,  July 30 - August 13, 1998, Vol. 8, Issue 16)
    • Review by Noah J. Efron, It's Alive, Boston Book Review 1998
    • Review by Robert S. Schwartz, M.D., The New England Journal of Medicine, January 21, 1999, Volume 340, Number 3
  • Weir, Robert F. Susan C. Lawrence and Evan Fales (Editors), Genes and Human Self-Knowledge: Historical and Philosophical Reflections on Modern Genetics, Univ of Iowa Press, 1994
  • Wekesser, Carol (Editor), Genetic Engineering: Opposing Viewpoints (Opposing Viewpoints Series) Greenhaven Press, 1995
  • Wright, Lawrence, Twins: And What They Tell Us About Who We Are, John Wiley & Sons, 1997
  •  Wright, William, Born That Way: Genes, Behavior, Personality, Knopf, 1998
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Psychiatric Classification

  • Blashfield, Roger K.,  The Classification of Psychopathology, Plenum Pub Corp, 1984
  • Guze, Samuel B. Why Psychiatry Is a Branch of Medicine Oxford Univ Press, 1992
  • Laor, Nathaniel, & Joseph Agassi Diagnosis: Philosophical and Medical Perspectives (Epistheme, Vol. 15) Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990.
  • North, Carol S., M.D., Ryall, Jo-Ellyn M., M.D. and Ricci, Daniel A., Multiple Personalities, Multiple Disorders: Psychiatric Classification and Media Influence (Oxford Monographs on Psychiatry, No 1) Oxford U Press, 1993
  • Reznek, L., The Nature of Disease, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1988
  • Sadler, John et al. (editors) Philosophical Perspectives on Psychiatric Classification (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994)
    • Review by Bell, Carl C., JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association Dec 14, 1994, v272, n22, p1794(3)
    • Review by Savulescu, Julian, Journal of Medical Ethics August 1995, v21, n4, p253(2)
  • Tyrer, Peter J. (Editor), Classification of Neurosis, John Wiley & Sons, 1989
  • Tyrer, Peter J. and Patricia Casey (Editors), Social Function in Psychiatry: The Hidden Axis of Classification Exposed,Wrightson Biomedical Pub Ltd, 1993
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Philosophy of Mind, Human Action, and Science

  • Allen, Colin and Marc Bekoff, Species of Mind: The Philosophy and Biology of Cognitive Ethology, The MIT Press, 1997
  • Allen, Douglas and Ashok Malhotra (Editors), Culture and Self: Philosophical and Religious Perspectives, East and West, Westview Press, 1997
  • Ames, Roger T., Wimal Dissanayake (Editors), Self and Deception: A Cross-Cultural Philosophical Enquiry, State University of New York, 1996
  • Baron-Cohen, Simon, Mindblindness: An Essay on Autism and Theory of Mind (Learning, Development and Conceptual Change) Cambridge: MIT Press, Bradford Books 1995
    • Review by Gregory Currie, TLS, Times Literary Supplement August 25, 1995 n4821 p7(1)
    • Review by Michael E. Goldberg, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience May 1996 v8 n3 p308(2)
    • Review by Daniel J. Povinelli and Theodore J. Povinelli, Trends in Neurosciences July 1996 v19 n7 p299(2)
  • Bermudez, Jose Luis,  et al., The Body and the Self, Bradford Books, 1998
  • Berofsky, Bernard, Liberation from Self: A Theory of Personal Autonomy, Cambridge Univ Press, 1995
    • Review by Dworkin, Gerald, The Journal of Philosophy April 1997, v94, n4, p212(5)
    • Review by Double, Richard, Mind April 1997, v106, n422, p337(5)
    • Review by Kapitan, Tomis, International Philosophical Quarterly Sept 1997, v37, n3, p370(3)
    • Review by Mele, Alfred, TLS. Times Literary Supplement Jan 9 1998, n4945, p29(1)
  • Bolton, Derek, & Jonathan Hill Mind, Meaning, and Mental Disorder: The Nature of Causal Explanation in Psychology and Psychiatry (Oxford Medical Publications) Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1996
    • Review by David C. Taylor, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, July 1997 v38 n5 p589(2)
    • Review by F. Toates, Behavior Research and Therapy, 1997, Vol. 35, Iss. 12, pp. 1161-1165
  • Braude, Stephen E., First Person Plural: Multiple Personality and the Philosophy of Mind Revised Paperback, Rowman & Littlefield, 1995
    • Review by Baillie, James, Mind April 1993, v102, n406, p349(5)
    • Review by O'Brien, Lucy, The Philosophical Quarterly April 1993, v43, n171, p272(2)
    • Review by Graham, George; Stephens, G. Lynn, Ethics April 1995, v.105, n3, 655-657
  • Carson, Ronald A. and Chester R. Burns (Editors) Philosophy of Medicine and Bioethics: A Twenty-Year Retrospective and Critical Appraisal (Philosophy and Medicine, V. 50) Kluwer Academic Pub 1997
  • Cataldi, Sue L., Emotion, Depth, and Flesh: A Study of Sensitive Space: Reflections on Merleau-Ponty's Philosophy of Embodiment, State Univ of New York Press, 1993
  • Culver, Charles M. and Bernard Gert, Philosophy in Medicine: Conceptual and Ethical Problems in Medicine and Psychiatry Oxford Univ Press 1982
  • Dancy, Jonathan (editor), Reading Parfit, Blackwell, 1997
  • De Sousa, Ronald, The Rationality of Emotion, Bradford Books, MIT Press, 1990
  • Dean, Alan, Chaos and Intoxication: Complexity and Adaptation in the Structure of Human Nature, Routledge, 1997
  • Durig, Alexander, Autism and the Crisis of Meaning, State Univ of New York Press, 1996
  • Flanagan, Owen and Amelie Oksenberg Rorty (Editors), Identity, Character, and Morality: Essays in Moral Psychology Bradford Books, 1993
  • Flanagan, Owen, Self Expressions: Mind, Morals, and the Meaning of Life (Philosophy of Mind Series) Oxford Univ Press 1996
  • Fulford, K.W.M. Moral Theory and Medical Practice (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1989)
    • Review by Gillett, Grant, The Philosophical Quarterly July 1991, v41, n164, p379(3)
  • Graham, George and G. Lynn Stephens Philosophical Psychopathology (MIT, 1994)
  • Greenspan, P. S. , Practical Guilt: Moral Dilemmas, Emotions, and Social Norms, Oxford Univ Press, 1995
  • Griffiths, A. Phillips (Editor) Philosophy, Psychology and Psychiatry (Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement, No 37) Cambridge Univ Press, 1995
    • Review by Radden, Jennifer, Journal of Medical Ethics August 1996, v22, n4, p253(2)
    • Review by Bolton, Derek, The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science Sept 1996, v47, n3, p474(2)
  • Haworth, Lawrence, Autonomy: An Essay in Philosophical Psychology and Ethics, Yale Univ Press, 1986
  • Jenkins, Jennifer M., Keith Oatley, and Nancy Stein, Human Emotions: A Reader, Blackwell Publishers, 1998
  • Laudan, Larry (Editor) Mind and Medicine: Problems of Explanation and Evaluation in Psychological and Biomedical Sciences Univ California Press 1983
  • Lehrer, Keith, Self-Trust: A Study of Reason, Knowledge, and Autonomy, Clarendon Press, 1997
    • Review by Mele, Alfred, TLS. Times Literary Supplement Jan 9 1998, n4945, p29(1)
  • Livingston, Donald W., Philosophical Melancholy and Delirium: Hume's Pathology of Philosophy, University of Chicago Press, 1998

I had one brother, Lee, who studied science and was very intelligent, and one sister, Mary, who looked a lot like Liz Taylor.  They were much older.  People used to mistake them for my parents, which irritated them a lot.  They told people I had been left behind in one of the hotel rooms where we lived.  Mary also told me, when I was about five, that I had once had a twin brother called John Henry.  Our parents couldn't afford two babies, she said, so they tossed a coin.  John Henry lost.  Mary said that my grandmother had turned John Henry into a lampshade.  She proved this by showing me a leather lampshade in grandmother’s living room.  Even at age five I didn't believe the story, but for years I did think my parents had given up a twin brother for adoption.

I worked at my father’s hotel desk from age nine, renting rooms and listening to the stories the patrons told each other.  One man, who only had one eye, told me he had lost the other eye in a fight with a grizzly bear.  He had a picture of the stuffed grizzly in front of a trading post in Alaska.  One of the hotel clerks painted a mural on the wall of an Aztec princess being sacrificed to the sun god.  It was a great painting, but the princess was naked from the waist up and looked a lot like my sister.  My mother made him paint a brassiere on the picture and my father fired him.  Next to the mural was the skin of a six-foot-long rattlesnake.  My father told people he had caught it in one of the rooms.

There were never any children in the hotel.  Because it was in a tough area, few of my school friends was allowed to visit me.  I spent most of my time with cowboys, railroad men, truck drivers and packers.  At the end of our street was a giant fruit-packing factory.  Assembly lines clanked all day.  Because the packers put only medium-sized fruit into the crates, anything too large or small was free for whoever wanted them.  Sometimes we ate cantaloupes for breakfast, lunch and dinner.  I can hardly bear to look at a cantaloupe today.  Before we moved to the hotel, we lived in a house with three fig trees in the yard.  During the fig season, we ate them three times a day.  If you squeezed a ripe fig, long, thin black insects ran out of the hole at the end.  My mother created a recipe for pickled figs that was one of the most horrible dishes ever invented.

Once, when I was watching the hotel desk, the police arrived to arrest a bank robber in one of the rooms.  He wasn't there at the moment, so the police crouched at my feet and waited for him.  The desk was as high as my chest and formed a little enclosure.  When the robber came in, I handed him the key and after the man went upstairs, the police charged after him.  My mother later found teddy bears in his room.  The robber had broken out of prison and was going home to see his kids.  She felt so bad about this, she sent the teddy bears and some money on to the children.

Another time, the military police came in to arrest a soldier who had gone AWOL from Yuma Test Station.  I knew and liked the man, and so I quickly phoned up to his room and told him to go out the fire escape.  For years I worried about being sent to jail for this.  I was nine years old.

My parents had almost no sense where cars were concerned.  We always seemed to buy automobiles that broke down and cost a lot of money.  For a while we had a huge, black Hudson that sucked up gasoline like a sponge.  One day, when my mother was driving back from Mexico, all the bolts holding a wheel broke at once and the wheel went rolling off into a ditch.  Fortunately, the car only went 25 miles an hour so we weren't hurt.

My brother Lee was every mother's dream.  He was good-natured, clean, easy to control and a certified genius.  This was in the days before the Teach Your Baby to Read movement, but my mother was ahead of the curve.  From the time Lee was able to focus, she gave him books.  She taught him the alphabet before he was able to say Mama, and she devoted her life to filling his mind and encouraging his progress.  Lee was the perfect recipient for this attention.  He read everything he could get his hands on.  At night he hid under the covers with a flashlight and devoured more books until Mother had to pry his fingers off the covers.  By the time he got to first grade he knew the names of the capitals of Europe.  He could identify the differences between a stegosaurus and a triceratops.  He could draw a map of the solar system with all the planets plus a few asteroids.

You'd think this would make him a hit with teachers, but when he got to first grade his first teacher produced a globe and said, brightly, "Who can tell me where Afghanistan is?"  Lee put up his hand.  Hell, Lee could not only find Afghanistan, he could tell you its gross national product.  The teacher looked down at him and snarled, "You don't know where Afghanistan is.  Put your hand down." This was the first time in Lee's short life he'd met someone who was not thrilled by his eager mind.  More than that, he was considered a threat.  Only the teacher was allowed to supply answers, and she became furious when someone tried to upstage her.  Lee was an exceedingly shy boy.  He'd been raised in a protected environment and nothing had prepared him for such rejection.  For the rest of the year and the year after that and the year after that he asked no more questions.  It soon developed that he was a very slow reader.  It was as though he had to force his eyes to creep across the page.

All my mother's energy was centered on Lee and so, when my sister Mary was born, Mother was too busy to pay much attention to her.  Mary was very intelligent, too, but she was a girl.  Girls were discouraged from acting clever.  They were supposed to look pretty and smell good, so they would be chosen as wives.  Mother spent a great deal of time encouraging Lee, and Mary was left to find things out for herself.  As time went by Lee earned top grades and prizes, while Mary was left in the shade.  Then I came along.

Mary immediately latched onto me.  I, too, was neglected by Mother, but I had a devoted older sister who thought she'd found the best toy in the world.  She spent hours talking to me and finding things to entertain me.  Then, when I was six months old my sister came home from school with measles and gave it to me.  I almost died.  I wasted away like a plant someone has forgotten to water.  My growth was stunted for many years.

Mary was devastated.  She believed it was her fault.  She felt God was punishing her for some sin.  She knew that she'd been named for my mother's baby sister who had died of typhoid.  For years Mary assumed this meant she, too, would die young.  She believed that her name was given to doomed children who were cursed from birth.  Thus, when I got sick she believed that her bad fortune had infected me.

When I recovered, Mary set about trying to make it up to me.  I didn't walk until I was three.  This was partly because my development was stunted, but partly because I had a willing slave to carry me around.  Mary taught me to read and made up stories of which I was the hero.  She drew picture books in which I starred.  What child wouldn't get an inflated ego with this kind of attention?

It's fascinating how small events can have a long-term effect on children.  Lee had been devastated by a quite ordinary rejection in first grade.  Another child would have shrugged it off.  Mary had already assumed she was of no importance compared to her brother.  When she -- as she thought -- almost killed me, it confirmed her belief that she was evil.  Ever after, when someone hurt her, she assumed it was her fault whereas I, with my fattened ego, got angry and swore revenge.  We were three children with the same parents, background and intelligence, and we had three entirely different personalities.

My mother had a special, trendy kind of crib that was popular in the 1940s.  It was inspired by the Skinner box, a device invented by the psychologist B.F. Skinner, and consisted of a wire cage on legs.  It was a lot like a chicken coop, except that it had a mattress in the bottom.  The top swung over and could be padlocked shut so no one could get at the baby, and of course the baby could not get out.  This device was called The Kiddie Koop.

Lee and Mary spent their first years in the Kiddie Koop.  They were both so good, the top never needed to be fastened down, but I was a completely different breed of cat.  I couldn't walk, but I could crawl.  I pulled myself over the top and fell to the floor.  Then I set off exploring on hands and knees.Mother locked the top down.  Mary sat outside and cried.  She suffered a lot more than I did.  I was merely furious.  I burrowed into the mattress, pulled out all the stuffing and worked on the wire bottom until I had made a hole.  Then I dropped down and set off exploring.  Mother lined the bottom with a chunk of wood and locked me up again.  This was the first skirmish in a life-long struggle for control.  I clearly remember being given a baby bottle, of deliberately unscrewing the top and pouring the milk down the sides of the Kiddie Koop before my mother's horrified eyes.  I could not have been older than three.  Mary was so upset by the Kiddie Koop that when she grew up, she chopped it into little bits and burned it.  I was sorry about that.  I was sure it belonged in a museum.

Due to Mary’s devoted teaching, I arrived in first grade able to read at the eighth grade level.  I had one mental flaw no one understood at the time:  I had no concept of left and right.  All my letters and numbers were in mirror writing, and my handwriting was terrible.  I didn't seem able to hold a pencil correctly.  For this reason I failed the first three grades.  No one knew what to do about it, although everyone agreed it was another example of my pig-headed determination to get my own way.  Now this condition is identified as dyslexia. 

Both my brother and sister had skipped several grades because of their intelligence.  When I arrived at school the new principal had a completely different approach.  His belief was that all children had exactly the same intellectual potential.  No one should be allowed to skip a grade because that would be unfair to the others.  We would all study the same things over and over until the slowest child understood before we would be allowed to go on.   I wish people would stop using kids as guinea pigs for their social experiments.  This man blighted my education.

I was put into a circle with all the other children and we began the adventures of Dick and Jane, Spot, Puff and Little Sally.  Slowly we worked around the circle.  Each one of us read the same page.  The real sticking point was a boy called Henry.  He was bigger than the others.  He had no hair, and his skull was mottled like a grapefruit.  Henry cheerfully said the first thing that came into his head -- dog, chair, lunchtime, hungry -- and the teacher complimented him.  If Henry didn't get it right, we had to go around the circle again with the same page.

Henry was never going to read the book.  He couldn't even recognize the alphabet, but after five or six times the teacher took pity on us and let us find out whether baby Sally found her red ball on the next page.  Henry was good at one thing:  He could copy any picture you gave him.  I brought him my Donald Duck comics and admired how he could reproduce them.  Henry and I worked together because we were the two outsiders.  He was at one end of the learning curve and I was at the other.  For some reason that made us friends.

I finished the first grade reader in two days and asked for something else.  "You have not finished the book," the teacher said, firmly.  "You're trying to make trouble.  Sit down and turn to page two."  It was the same kind of thing that had happened to my brother, but I was a far different child.  I had been the star of dozens of dramas written by my sister.  I had learned that if someone said no, it merely meant you were off the hook and free to do as you liked.  I shut my mind to the teacher and daydreamed.  Every now and then someone would nudge me and I would read the page.  The rest of the time I was queen of a distant country with magic powers and adoring subjects.

This daydreaming pattern was set in first grade and it grew until it took over my life.  School was intolerably, excruciatingly boring.  I learned various ways to pretend sickness so I could be sent home.  Vomiting on the front steps of the school was good.  I could manage it if I drank spoiled milk before leaving home.  My mother never threw anything out, so it was quite easy to find sour milk.

Every year we learned the same things:  How to diagram sentences, American history up to the War of 1812, addition and subtraction and more addition and subtraction with long division thrown in as a treat.  The lessons inched ahead and I went off into a daydream the minute I sat down.When I was eight my father had a heart attack.  He had to find easier work and for some unfathomable reason he thought managing a hotel was easy.  We moved to Yuma, Arizona, on the Mexican border.

The temperature there was over 120 degrees every summer.  It rained about as much as it does in the Sahara Desert and when the wind blew, dust storms turned the sky dark at noon.  Sand burrowed under doors, through window cracks, and into your eyes and mouth.  When it did rain, hordes of crickets poured out of the Colorado River basin and turned the streets black with insects.  Cars slid back and forth on them.  It was not a promising place to run a hotel.

The only important building in Yuma was an old prison.  It was said to be the worst prison in the West.  The cells were carved out of solid rock.  The doors were made of iron.  If you managed to escape, you had to jump down a cliff into the Colorado River, which was full of quicksand.  If you didn't get swallowed up by quicksand or swept away by the water, you climbed out into a blisteringly hot desert whose inhabitants were the Yuma Indians.  The Yumas did not like trespassers, so your chances of getting past them was about zero.

At some point, the state decided the prison was too horrible for criminals.  They closed it, and the town turned it into a high school.  It made a good school.  It made you think seriously about studying and no one ever played hooky.  Eventually, the town built a real school with bathrooms and windows and other fancy stuff but to this day, the high school football team in Yuma is called the Yuma Criminals.  I went to Yuma Middle School and our football team was called the Juvenile Delinquents.

In fifth grade I had a teacher called Mrs. Wolfe who was very kind and encouraged my studies.  For the first time I had no desire to play hooky.  Unfortunately, in sixth grade I had a teacher called Miss Clairidge.  Every afternoon she read to us about Soviet prison camps, about people getting tortured or shot in the back of the head or about prisoners killing kittens and puppies, and making them into soup.  When Miss Clairidge ran out of these stories, she told us about her summer vacations at the Chicago stockyards.  Miss Clairidge loved visiting the stockyards.  She described how the animals moaned in fear because they could smell the blood of their slaughtered companions.  I began to have nightmares. I didn’t like school anymore.

This was during the Cold War and we used to have atom bomb drills at the school.  We practiced hiding under desks with our hands over our eyes.  If I got up very early on certain days, I could see the flash of atom bomb tests from Yucca Flats in Nevada.  One of the games my friends and I played was called, Who do you want in your bomb shelter?  This was based on the belief that when the bomb did drop we kids would emerge into a world full of free stuff.  We would run amok in supermarkets, jewelry stores, and rich people's mansions.  We walked around J. C. Penney's and picked out things we would loot when the time came.  Sometimes we talked about which movie stars we would invite to share our shelters and sometimes we chose historical figures.  A variation of this game was called, Who would you kick out of the bomb shelter?

It occurs to me now that maybe it wasn't a good idea for my parents to leave a small girl in charge of a hotel with a bar on one side and a liquor store on the other.  But the experience certainly taught me independence.  By now my brother and sister were in college.  My parents were busy, so I was pretty well on my own.

At night I explored the roofs along Main Street.  I could jump from the hotel to the top of the liquor store and go on to the movie theater.  There I opened a trap door and slipped down to watch free movies.  I also spied on the bowling alley and the American Legion Hall.  At ground level I scampered from the Catholic church at one end of Main Street to the Brown Hotel at the other.  The Brown Hotel was a brothel.  I had not the slightest idea what a brothel was, of course.  A large woman in a pink slip lounged on a sofa outside.  I didn't think this was strange at all.  When I wasn't exploring, I played cribbage with the old retired railroad men at the hotel.  The lobby was always full of truck drivers, salesmen, cowboys and sometimes even more exotic creatures like circus folk and Grand Old Opry singers.  We never had the important stars.  They stayed in better hotels, but the less important people were just as interesting.

With all this freedom, I became completely wild.  School had rarely offered me anything but boredom.  Life outside, exploring the hobo jungle along the river, watching the assembly line at the fruit packing plant and observing quickie weddings at the chapels that lined the road from California, was far more interesting.  In seventh grade I learned to play hooky.  I got away with it for two years.  After that I was thrown out of high school for bad behavior.

Clearly, I wasn't learning much in an official sort of way, but I was reading on a grand scale.  The hotel had a library composed of the stuff people left in the rooms.  First, the magazines:  Argosy, True, Esquire, The Saturday Evening Post, The American Legion Magazine, The Police Gazette and many detective and cowboy magazines whose names I don't remember.  This was the heyday of the short story.  These magazines were also full of true adventures and war stories.  Some of America's top writers got their start here.  There was one particularly lurid publication called See with great covers.  One I remember was of a man swimming away from a horde of giant rats.  You could always count on See for quality art.

What is notable about these magazines is that although their covers were sleazy, the contents were often excellent.  Ernest Hemingway, C. S. Forrester, Roald Dahl, J. D. Salinger, Kurt Vonnegut and John Steinbeck were published in them.  My mother made an effort to weed out publications unsuitable for my eyes, but she always missed a few.  The Nudist Monthly had entertaining photographs of people playing volleyball.  True Confessions was loaded with fascinating descriptions of sin.  Compared to today, it was all pretty innocent.

The hotel also had a good collection of paperback novels.  Ah, the covers of those 1950's novels!  They lured me into more than one piece of literature.  The cover of The Sun Also Rises had a Spanish girl in a low-cut blouse with her skirts pulled up around her thighs.  Nowhere in that book will you find this scene, but the artist's job was to grab your attention.  Catcher in the Rye had a teenage boy and girl swimming naked.  Tobacco Road had a pair of hillbillies ogling a scantily-clad girl in a pig-sty.  I worked my way through Tennessee Williams, Maupassant, Victor Hugo, Faulkner, F. Scott Fitzgerald and Hemingway on the promise of those covers.  I got a better grasp of literature from that hotel library than from a Master of Fine Arts program at a top university.

I was now a full-time hooky player.  I left home in the morning, turned aside and went down to the Colorado River where I could play with the children of Illegals who didn't go to school.  I sneaked into the gardens of the Sanguinetti House, which was a mansion I used in The House of the Scorpion.  The Sanguinetti House had the only green grass in town.  Peacocks wandered over its lawns and parrots screeched from cages.  There was a tile fountain and hedges of flowers I could hide behind.  I went back there as an adult to check up on the accuracy of my description and found it was exactly as I remembered.  Except that it was small.  When I was a child, it seemed to go on for miles.

One day, as I was walking along a back street in Yuma, I found four pages that had been ripped out of a book.  The print was small and the paper was edged with gold like the pages of the Bible.  I knew they had come from something very good.  I was shocked.  No one in our family would treat a book that way.  My sister had told me, when I was small, that books felt pain and if you marked them up with pencils they would cry.

I sat down to read the lost pages.  They were about a little girl who was supposed to take care of her brother's rabbits while he was on a trip.  She had forgotten to give them water.  When her brother returned, all the rabbits were dead and he was furious.That was all.  I turned the pages around, trying to find the title of the book, but there was nothing.  I was devastated.  What happened to the little girl?  Did her brother forgive her?  How could anyone forget to water rabbits?  The writing was so good I could see those poor little bunnies and the girl crying and her brother -- Tom was his name -- shouting at her.  I had to find out what happened next.

I decided to do a very dangerous thing and go to the public library.  I went up to the desk, held out the pages and said, "Please tell me what book those came out of.  I didn't do it."  The librarian certainly knew I was playing hooky.  "These pages," she said, squinting at the tiny print, "are from Mill on the Floss by George Eliot.  Do you want the rest of the book?"

“Oh, yes," I said.  So she took me to the adult part of the library -- children in those days weren't allowed into the adult section -- and found me Mill on the Floss.  I sat down to read.  Thereafter, when I was tired of watching quickie weddings or hobos jump off the train, I went to the library.  It was cool and had a drinking fountain, no small thing in Yuma.  I worked my way through Pride and Prejudice, Jane Eyre, David Copperfield and many others.  And that librarian never turned me in.


    Nancy was born in 1941 in Phoenix.  She attended Reed College in Portland, Oregon, earning her BA in 1963.  Instead of taking a regular job, she joined the Peace Corps and was sent to India (1963-1965). When she returned she went to Berkeley and sold newspapers on the street for a while, then got a job in the Entomology department at UC Berkeley and also took courses in Chemistry there.  Restless, again, she decided to visit Africa.  She and a friend tried to  hitchhike by boat but the ship they'd selected turned out to be stolen and was boarded by the Coast Guard just outside the Golden Gate Bridge.  Nancy was forced to buy an airline ticket.  She spent more than a year, living virtually alone, on Lake Cabora Bassa in Mozambique, monitoring water weeds.   Next she was hired to help control tsetse fly in the dense bush on the banks of the Zambezi in Zimbabwe.  Part of the time she spent in the capital, Harare, and there met her future husband.  They married a few weeks later (in 1976) and now live in Menlo Park, California.  They have a son, Daniel, who is in the U.S. navy.
      Nancy's honors include the National Book Award (Children's Literature) for The House of the Scorpion and Newbery Honors for The Ear, the Eye and The Arm, A Girl Named Disaster and The House of the Scorpion.  She is the author of eight novels, three picture books and a number of short stories.  Her books have been translated into 26 languages.

How I Became a Writer

     I started writing when I was 40. By that time, I was working on tsetse fly control in Zimbabwe. I worked in the field until I was eight-and-a-half months pregnant, in an area full of terrorists. I thought that after I had the baby I was going to sling him on my back and go back to the war zone and work. Didn't work out that way! I had Daniel I had to stop work as a scientist. I got very depressed just sitting at home. Even though I adored my baby, I was used to going around having fun, and I wasn't having fun anymore. Then, when Daniel was four, I was reading him a book by Marjorie Forster, and I thought, 'Wow, I can do this!' And I sat down and wrote a short story. That's when I started being a writer. I got the Tarzan books and studied how Edgar Rice Burroughs kept the pace going, because he was really good at that. And I studied Stephen King. Although Burroughs wasn't that great on character, he was great on pace and adventure, and King is very good on character as well as pace. I read the same book over three times to see how it was put together. That's how I trained myself to write.    

It was dead easy to sell things in Africa. They were desperate, so I was spoiled rotten. I could write anything and they would publish it, pay me immediately, and give me royalties. It was lovely...  But I wanted to get published in the US...Eventually I sent a story to the Writers of the Future Contest, and it won one of their four yearly prizes. They were very good to me. They picked me out of Africa and flew me to the US. I was able to see my mother and my family, who I hadn't seen for years because we couldn't afford the airfare. They had a writing workshop taught by Orson Scott Card, and we were there for a week. I was kind of in shell shock because I hadn't been in the US -- I hadn't been in cities -- for a long time, and this was Hollywood! And I was not used to being in the public eye at all. I was absolutely terrified, shaking all over. Algis Budrys was very fatherly, telling me to calm down. I won the Gold Award, and I just did not know how to react to it. I was completely floored.   

With the help of the award money from the Writers of the Future, we moved back to the United States, but we were still dirt poor even though Harold had a fellowship at Stanford... For a while I also worked at Stanford in the genetics department, maltreating fruit flies. These were utterly ugly deformed flies, with eyes coming out of their heads and wings out of their stomachs, and they'd stagger around. My job was to get them to mate so they could continue the line. Fruit flies do a little mating dance, and if they don't have it they're not interested, so I would be there with a toothpick, wiggling the male -- I was a fruit fly pimp! Plus they gave me these carcinogenic chemicals to work with, to help deform the flies, and the chemicals ate the gloves off my hands. I began to think, 'This is not a career option. I've got to do something else.' After I quit and the lab director told me he wasn't going to give me a recommendation, I went home, devastated. My son was bouncing up and down by the mail box -- I had gotten a letter from the National Endowment for the Arts, saying they'd awarded me $20,000 for Do You Know Me? They had never awarded it to a children's author before, and I'd sent them my first children's book in this country. That saved my bacon. And I've been a full-time writer ever since.

    I did a bit of writing as a kid. We had a ratty typewriter, and I put out a little newspaper of my own. I made a cartoon strip and stuff like that, but that was just for fun. Later on, one of my first jobs was putting out a weekly newspaper for the Parks Department in Phoenix. When I wrote an article, and if it got even slightly creative, the real editor would knock it all out and make it as dull as possible. But it did teach me not to take my writing too seriously, because it's going to get cut to ribbons anyway. So I never had the feeling my writing was deathless literature. (That was useful later on. I don't mind doing rewrites and messing around with my work.) I went into science, partly because my brother's a very good scientist. I thought this was the thing I should be doing, and I was good at it -- just not as good as he was. He's the sort of person who could work for years and years keying out a particular kind of slime mold and be perfectly happy. I can do that for about half a week, and then I have to go out and party or something! I didn't have the application.

    The writer always is an outsider. I started out as an outsider as a little kid because my parents were so old when I was born -- they were a generation earlier than the other kids' parents. And I was born a lot later than my brother and sister, so I spent most of my childhood alone. I started reading really young. My parents were bookaholics and had a huge amount of books around. We had all the classics -- French literature, Shakespeare, myths -- plus all the popular hit books of 1920, and all my mother's children's books -- very Victorian books her mother had had, published in the 1890s, politically incorrect books that were wonderful reads. I loved H. Rider Haggard, and at one point my aunt gave me all the Tarzan books. Those were great! I also started reading science fiction very young. My brother brought home Astounding Science Fiction -- whatever science fiction magazines were around, he brought those home. Then the very first Ace Doubles. So that's how I got into science fiction. My sister didn't read it much, but I really took to it.   

We started out living in Phoenix, where my father ran a tavern, but his boss and his boss's wife got murdered, so he got nervous -- he had a heart attack from nervousness -- and wanted to move somewhere tranquil. We moved to Yuma, where he became a hotel manager. (Of course a hotel is a lot of work. You never really relax.) It was sort of a run-down hotel, the oldest in town. It had guests like old retired railroad men, fruit tramps who'd come through every year and pack cantaloupes, cowboys. The circus came through once a year. We had second-string Grand Old Opry stars, and the second-string rodeo people all covered with scar tissue. It was a really interesting place to be. I would stay up till midnight every night listening to these guys tell stories. Then I was wasted the next day in school. I didn't intend to be a writer, but it was a great background. There were all these exciting things going on!

    I had a very active fantasy life. I made up lots of stories, and when I got to school I never really fit in. I got thrown out of a couple of schools at a certain point -- from a Catholic school for putting salt into pies for the visiting priests when I was supposed to be putting sugar. Then I was sent to a Presbyterian school to straighten me out, but in the middle of winter we had a riot: we threw the head mistress out into the snow, locked her out, and then we went wild -- broke into the Coke machines, unrolled all the toilet paper, and then stood on the roof, took off our shirts and waved them and invited the boys over from the boys' dormitory. It was about then that I was sent home from that particular school!     The older I got, the more I fit in. I liked college a lot, but even so I was always a little bit to the side, not really in with the rest of the people. I probably never fit in until I got to Berkeley, where I worked in the entomology department (which is what prepared me to go to Africa). I liked it because everything is acceptable in Berkeley, and that was really exhilarating. I was there around 1967-68, during the Vietnam protests and the real hippie era, so anything went. I was taking lessons in the chemistry department, and you could smell the tear gas wafting across from Sather Gate. I used to take part in the demonstrations, watch the National Guard, stuff like that. I lived in a Berkeley commune at that time. Everybody in the commune was a misfit, so we all got along together really well.

    When I got to writing professional fiction, it just seemed like my whole life had been a preparation for that. It has been! I just wanted to live life with a capital L. I wanted to see everything that was out there. I didn't really have serious career plans or options at all. As a kid I wanted to be an explorer, so I got a whole bunch of books about photography on expeditions and how to survive in the wild, and I trained myself to be an explorer. As an adult, I wandered around the world and people would come out of the woodwork and take care of me. Innocence works -- it usually was quite wonderful.   

At a certain point, I ran off to Africa in search of love and adventure. I had already been in the Peace Corps in India, then come back and lived with the Hari Krishnas for a while. When I left Berkeley, I spent some time in a regular job with the highway department, training the road maintenance crew on the good bugs vs. the bad bugs -- when to spray, when not to spray. But I got promoted beyond my level of capability, from field work (which I'm good at) to administration (which I'm terrible at). I began to get pretty bored, and I wanted to run off to Africa. I was 30, had $500 in traveler's checks, and I got a ticket on a freighter going to South Africa. I had a list of entomologists there, and my grand plan was to walk to the nearest one and ask for work. At that time all you could find in the library were really old books on Africa, so I figured it was like going back in a time warp. I got to Cape Town, and of course it's very modern, extremely beautiful. I didn't really know much about apartheid, which was in full swing back then. But I did walk to the nearest entomologist and ask for work.    

The first job I had was collecting Solfugit, which is an arachnid -- they're big, ugly spidery things but they're not really dangerous. There was a group of them living beside this airstrip, and my job was to go out on the airstrip and collect them, all the while looking up to see if anything was landing. (This was why it was the job nobody else wanted.) You'd see a shadow pass overhead, and then you'd run like hell for the bushes! Eventually I got offered a wonderful job in Mozambique, doing water chemistry and entomology. It was probably the best job I've ever had. And Mozambique is where I got to really know Africans and picked up a whole lot of stories. I had an insane lab technician who gave me most of the stories that ended up in The Ear, the Eye, and the Arm...        

I wrote about Africa because I knew it -- I'd been living there 17 years -- and I didn't know the United States anymore. The first book I wrote while in Africa was about California hippies because that's exotic and the Africans liked that. But when I wrote it I realized I'd forgotten what it was like, and I didn't really have a feel for American language patterns any more. That was when I realized I had to write about Africa. Do You Know Me? was for little kids. The Ear, the Eye, and the Arm was the first 'big' book -- I made a thorough study of African mythology, religion and customs to make sure I got all the facts right. Then I did A Girl Named Disaster (I even have a bibliography on that one, because I intended it as an African Studies book.) In between, I wrote The Warm Place. That one was more popular in Africa than it was in the US. I retold certain Bible stories and Talmudic stories from an animal's point of view. It's fantasy, but it's a small book and has some religious aspects. It's not a bad book, but people remember the books that get awards, like The Ear, The Eye, and the Arm and A Girl Named Disaster...   

 I don't read much fiction now, except fiction that doesn't raise any static to what I'm writing. If I'm trying to read a book (even a really good one) while I'm writing, my brain will just reject it, and I can't pick up the plot. So I wait till I'm in between books to do my reading. Then I'm fair to the book, I can understand it, and I do a lot of reading. Not many children's books, though, except ones by people I know and like. When I was growing up, I read C.S. Lewis and Roald Dahl. I love Dahl's outlook; there's nobody nastier! He's the one who said, 'Children are little beasts, and you mustn't forget it.' He liked children but he didn't have any illusions about them.   

Lately I've been going out and giving talks all over the place. It's not natural to me. It makes me so nervous I get sick. But it's good business. And I like to meet the people. What worries me is that I have fans among kids. Kids will come up to me and say, 'I have read your book three times and I'm patterning my life on your book.' I know what a wasted character I am, and I don't think my advice is that good. (Don't listen to me -- please read some other book!) I don't really want to be responsible for them changing their lives, although I don't think I teach them to do anything truly awful.   

One of my main themes is self-reliance, the ability to compete against odds and to beat them. A lot of kids' books have somebody who learns to come to terms with some dreadful situation, and it's all about them continuing to suffer at the end of the book. I don't want to write 'victim' books. I want a triumph, a hero or a heroine, and that's what I write about.

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